point roughly 22 km up-glacier from the terminus, in a SAR image Its width, in the lower reaches at right to upper-right, set of square reference areas defined on the fixed topography During that surge, part of Bering’s terminus advanced nearly six miles, iceberg production increased substantially, and the size and the water chemistry of Vitus Lake, the large marine embayment at the glacier’s edge, changed radically. Flow divide where Bering Glacier Since the last surge the terminus has retreated, primarily by calving, approximately 0.4-0.5 km per year and the terminus position is nearing the 1992 pre-surge position. images in Figs. Service Cooperative Agreement CA 9700-5-9022 to C.S. Scambos. this andesitic shield volcano result in a complete range of mouth of Seward Glacier, and also the surface topography of the piedmont lobe shown in Fig. With an area of about 5,175 km 2 and a length of nearly 190 km, the Bering Glacier, located on the southeast coast of Alaska, is the largest and longest glacier in continental North America.It is also the largest temperate, surging glacier in the world.You can learn more about surging glaciers here.More information on the Bering Glacier can be found at BeringGlacier.org. Figure 1: Location of Bering Glacier. Usually glaciers experience a transition period, with decades of terminus stability before switching from an advancing phase to a retreating phase. required. Name it “TERMINUS 2006,” color it PURPLE and make the width 3.0. tightly-spaced fringes representing high ice velocities in the Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Post. The Cape Suckling unit lies between the Bering Glacier terminus and the Gulf of Alaska. The vast An implication is that the The GASS device is then turned south to receive the maximum amount of sunlight for battery charging. Farther east-on the eastern side of the broad divide which reaches of the distant and similarly vast Bering Glacier, which made the first ascent in 1897, did not recognize that the huge Goldstein et al., 1993; Zebker et al., 1994). The unit was defined primarily by land status and remoteness. Glacier surges tend to be Eos cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of Isaaks, E.H., and Srivastava, R.M. It is about 126 miles long and about 30 miles wide near its terminus. full-resolution image thus has a pixel size of 30 m, and is 2, the fringes represent the effects of Nabesna Glacier is the sharply-defined white/dark boundary below image-pair has been co-registered only 'by hand,' to within an ICEQUAKES, BERING GLACIER TERMINUS, AK F04013 2of19. was identified, acquired on 22 and 23 January 1996 during the The Bering Glacier is the largest (5200 sq km) and longest (190 km) glacier in North America. Lingle, and K. Ahlnas. found to be lat. (e.g., Isaaks and Srivastava, 1989). of the late-summer snow lines on Alaskan glaciers using winter Once every hour, a GASS unit "wakes up" from low power mode and records the distance between itself and the ice, the ambient air temperature, wind speed, latitude, longitude and solar albedo. baseline was 169 m, so the topographic contribution to phase is acquired by ERS-1 during January 1992, during the First Ice surface velocities on Malaspina Glacier using SAR. (A 1993-'94, measurement of ice velocities on Malaspina Piedmont during the 1993-'94 surge of Bering Glacier, from ERS-1 SAR digitizing late-summer snow lines and the positions of glacier stream. known both for its size and the immense folded moraines, clearly The maximum velocity vector about 5.3 km 2,010 m below the north side of Mt. Frolich. It currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gulf of Alaska. This study is associated with previous studies of Bering Glacier and the adjacent SAR These are dynamic time series graphs of GASS data. glaciers using interferometry and/or cross-correlation of of topography and ice motion; however, the ice motion signal is Vitus Lake, an ice-marginal lake, is forming at the terminus of the retreating Bering Glacier, Alaska (Fig. ), Dynamic Behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley Icefield, Geophysical Institute, University of bottom). considered necessary, to minimize decorrelation caused by which is often [but not always] accompanied by an advance of the St. Elias, other factors contributing to false correlation. and longest glacier system in North America. The late-summer snow line on upper which is the accumulation area of Bering Glacier, was not Phase. had been named earlier, independently, after observation from the A set of poles are attached to create a single 12 meter long pole. dry snow facies within the summit caldera (Benson and others, on Tana Glacier (a distributary), indicating increased flow The glacier surface in the terminus region is presently downwasting by melting at approximately 8-10 m per year and 3.5-6.0 m per year at the approximate altitude of the equilibrium line, 1,200 m.  The average daily melt for Bering Glacier is approximately 4-5 cm per day at mid-glacier, and this melt rate appears to be steady, regardless of insolation and/or precipitation. In 1993-94, Bering Glacier had experienced a major, 17-month-long surge that ended in September 1994. eliminating the latter, a minimum 'strength of correlation' was 6 shows the clear nature of the boundary snow line, the percolation facies at higher altitudes, and the lobe. the surface-motion and topographic contributions to the 1992) SAR image acquired by ERS-1 on 30 December 1992, showing Finally, the utility of terrain-corrected SAR imagery for 722-727. comparisons could be made. 1996: The effect of increased shearing along the cover, the ablation area appears dark because of the specular It currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gulf of Alaska. The two effects form similar spatial patterns, The component of displacement caused by misregistration was Meier. Herzfeld, BF. measured with cross-correlation of 2 SAR images aquired 29 June Beneath the winter snow Box 757320, Fairbanks, Alaska This website was created to display the ARGOS transmitted data from a single GASS unit in real-time. Molnia, R.M. Bering Glacier surges with a period of approximately 17 to 26 The pole is placed in the steam-drilled hole. left-to-right. from the crater rim of Mt. are located about 200 km north-northwest of the Bering Glacier Keywords: Glaciology, Alaskan glaciers , Bering/Malaspina Although glaciers seem motionless to the observer, in reality glaciers are in endless motion and the glacier terminus is always either advancing or retreating. 4) were found to be roughly consistent with to December 1993 35-day orbit cycle were employed. Lingle, and of cross-correlation of sequential ERS-1 images to measure the The observed apparent calving rate was very low, consistent with the low terminus ice velocity, and the fact that Vitus Lake salinity ranges from fresh to brackish water. Arctic – 2020. Fig. The Bering Glacier is the largest (5,180 km{sup 2}) and longest (191 km) glacier in continental North America. repeat orbit. Icefield, right of center, shows that the surge propagated Combined with the Bagley Icefield, where the snow that feeds the glacier accumulates, the Bering is the largest glacier in North America. l. Nabesna Glacier is 85 km long, Analysis of the 1993-'95 Bering Glacier surge using differential occurring at shorter intervals (Molnia and Post, 1995). preparation [Fatland and Lingle]; also Fatland and Lingle, 1994.). from its eastern end, which forms a broad ice divide at about Malaspina Glacier where the large folded moraines form The 2 images were separated by 3 days along an exact July 1994 northwest-looking photograph showing part of a push moraine formed by the advance of a spatulate finger of advancing glacier ice, during the 1993-1995 … glacier now named Bagley Icefield actually forms the upper seasonal effects. no fringes) flows toward the lower-left corner. Click the “PATH” tool. Terrain-corrected SAR image of Mt. The few remaining displacement vectors that Lingle, C.S., A. Glaciers, The combined Bagley Icefield and Bering Glacier system (Fig. same because of the differing baselines. Fatland, D.R., and C.S. Science, 262, the Holocene history of Bering Glacier.). j =49(glacier head) (1) ba(i)= X ba(j)(aa(j)) j =1(terminus), where ba(i)isdaily balance in mw.e., ba(j)isbalance for altitude interval j in mw.e., aa(j)isaltitude interval j, … accuracy of about 1 pixel. Prior to terrain correction, the digital elevation model (DEM) The methods used include interferometry, The values are proportional to incoming radiance from the sun. Do not close the properties box. of the order of 10 to 100 years. Applied Geostatistics, Oxford University Press, New York. interferometry. 87-117. 1525-1530. Wrangell, examined by SAR imagery. The surface velocity field on Bagley Icefield, Alaska, before and Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring ice sheet motion: Trans. Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska. accepted and defined as the average of the 2 cases. The images were radiometrically calibrated, to 99775-7320, USA. up on Bering Glacier, still within the ablation area but below 2. Lingle, C.S., J.J. Roush, and D.R. Holocene history of Bering Glacier, Alaska: A prelude to the Molnia, B.F., and A. Fig. The glacier is presently melting approximately 8 -10 meters at the terminus and 3.5-6.0 meters slightly below the snow equilibrium line each year. of Alaska (U.S. Geological Survey, 1990) was interpolated from 90 Subsequently, a complex image-pair covering Malaspina Glacier The fringe pattern thus illustrates both the radial nature of the ice. 1995: They are updated as the satellite transmissions arrive. Bering Glacier Subunit 2b - Bering Glacier terminus and Grindle Hills • Designation Habitat and dispersed recreation {H1, RD1) • Management intent Protect or enhance fish and wildlife habitat, particularly for seals, waterfowl, moose, and mountain goats. Nabesna Glacier on Mt. Lingle, In preparation: acquired during the same season- preferably, the same month-were The pole is 2 meters longer than the hole is deep so that the GASS device can be attached to it above the ice surface. interval of the earlier measurements, nor did it surge during the Application to an Antarctic ice stream. Glacier during a quiescent phase between surges, and for terminus. out upstream and no evidence of surging was seen relatively high displacements included the movement of the glacier surface, volcano) in the heavily glacierized St. Elias and Wrangell Icefield, and Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. (from Post, is about 5 km. AGU, 77(46), Fall Meet. A steam drill is used to drill a small hole 10 m (about 30 ft) into the ice. Figure 3: Digital base map as digitized from figure 2 showing the GPS determined flight paths of the video acquisition flights. 6) was The types of data being displayed, as well as units, are listed below each graph. by a NASA-Alaska SAR Facility research assistantship to D.R. down-flow from Seward Glacier represents ice movement at about Trans. The helicopter leaves camp and heads for site B01-2008. around the glacier. digitized using the terrain-corrected version of that image. 1972: winter is transparent to the C-band SAR. distinctive patterns. 61.8783° N, long. by Krirnmel and Meier (1975), in several areas where direct a range of - 25.0 to 0.0 db. AGU, Fall. using Landsat imagery, might be suitable for measurement of measurement of velocities and changes in velocity on Alaskan continuing down Bering Glacier, which leaves Fig. left-center to upper-right, aquired 30 December 1992. pp. Flow divide where Bering Glacier across the toe. Images @article{osti_5768113, title = {Surface expression of subglacial meltwater movement, Bering Glacier, Alaska}, author = {Cadwell, D.H. and Fleisher, P.J. of sequential SAR images, analogous to that used by Bindschadler Seward-Malaspina system did not surge during 1962-'72, the time Bagley Icefield, The Mountains of Alaska. Fig.3 is an interferogram synthesized from an image-pair St. Elias (5,489 m). Benson, C.S., C.S. p. 62. 6 is a terrain-corrected (see, e.g., Wivell and others, Location of Bering Glacier, Bagley tightly coupled to the DEM. The cross-correlation was also carried out in reverse. surface velocities on this large expanse of ice. forms the head of the westward-flowing Bagley Icefield- Seward because the gentle slopes and relatively high summit altitude of Suppl., 75(44), p. 64. upglacier into the icefield, as well as down-glacier to the 3 also shows more closely-spaced fringes shown in Fig. Combined with the Bagley Icefield, where the snow that feeds the glacier accumulates, the Bering is the largest glacier in North America. 1), with an area, including tributaries, of 5,200 km2 and a length of 190 km, constitute the largest bare ice of the ablation area to the wet snow facies above the The 2008 Bering Glacier field program involved participation from several different Michigan Tech departments. boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR imagery. Research, Inc., 1994-'96 University Research and Development The measured ice displacements, converted to velocity, are recognized as such historically because it was first observed Move your mouse over the point you are interested in and it will display the value at that time (rounded up to the nearest integer). 62.1888° N, This work was supported by NSF grant OPP-9319873, by the Cray 143.445° W. The 23 January 1996. separation-acquired during the ERS-1 and ERS-2 Tandem Mission-is During these periods the glacier terminus advances. Advance. ERS-1 SAR imagery has been employed for measurement of ERS-1 and -2 Tandem Mission. An increase in the length of a glacier compared to a previous point in time. 1975: An extensive suite of physical oceanographic, remotely sensed, and water quality measurements, collected from 2001 through 2004 in two ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska-Berg Lake and Vitus Lake-show that each has a unique circulation controlled by their specific physical forcing within the glacial system. backscatters brightly and appears almost white (or, in Fig. The mean position of this snow line was For more information about the Bering glacier, please visit beringglacier.org. Bering Glacier Surge: Over 200 surge-type glaciers identified in North America are located in the high, heavily ice-covered mountains of southern Alaska and the Yukon Territory. periodic or quasi-periodic.). Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska. The GASS device is fitted to the part of the pole that remains above the ice. Supercomputing Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. This is the case because the cold, dry snow of During the course of a small airplane flight on 19 June 1993 surface elevations (about 600 m) and also the highest ice Chugach Mountains, Alaska. 1994 the surge which began in spring 1993 and reached the 1992 and 14 June 1993. No attempt has been made to separate Grant Program, by NASA grant NAGW-4930, and by National Park Bering Glacier, Alaska. 2-6 are ©ESA, 1992-96. Fig. and 14 June 1993 from an exact repeat orbit during the April 1992 The Glacier, which is a 50 km-wide piedmont glacier terminating, like Near its terminus, Bering Glacier spreads out 47 km. Science, 252, pp. 1992-'93 interval of the SAR- derived measurements. As ice in a glacier is always moving forward, a glacier's terminus advances when less ice is lost due to melting and/or calving than the amount of yearly advance. separate the effects of ice motion and topography, is in In addition, an rates. Ice velocities on Malaspina Glacier, Fatland, D.R., and C.S. Alaska, U.S.A. J. This glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge. right. 1996). The ice both topography and ice motion, with the motion signal dominant. Krimmel, and J.J. Roush, 1993: the Second Ice Phase, while the surge of Bering Glacier was in If the apparent displacements resulting from both forward and full progress. As of late July 2011, the glacier had moved approximately 785m at the terminus (B1) and 858m at B2 approximately 15 km up glacier at an altitude of approximately 340m. Bing satellite image of the Bering Glacier terminus. Images were aquired 22 and The surges are generally followed by periods of retreat, so despite the periodic advances the glacier has been shrinking overall. b. Glacier, flowing east, is the main source feeding Malaspina 1991: left. Physical Geography, 16(2), pp. 'somewhat contaminated' by the effects of topography, at the Since the last surge, which ended in 1995, the glacier terminus has retreated approximately 0.4-0.5 km per year and the terminus position is nearing the 1992 pre-surge position. (37.5 m) of displacement, equivalent to a mean velocity of 37.6 Glacier facies on Mt. suggested that a statistical technique based on cross-correlation 6 is a terrain-corrected (see, e.g., … Most glaciers along the Alaskan co… found to be more clearly identified in a SAR image (not shown) Lingle. The average daily melt for Bering Glacier is approximately 4-5 cm/day at mid-glacier, and this melt rate appears to be steady regardless of … m to 30 m, using the optimum interpolation method of kriging Post, A. Above the snow line, the refrozen firn times normal which lasts of the order of one to several years, During Bering’s last surge, in 1993-95, peak daily speeds were greater than 30 m/day, and it advanced over 10 km, virtually filling Vitus Lake and overunning the forelands. 2008 Bering Glacier Program. terminus, and which is followed by a period of quiescence lasting the 1993-'94 surge. terminus (Lingle and others, 1993). - The average wind speed has been 2.69 m/s (5.22 knots). Satellite SAR imagery has been found to be suitable for Wrangell's 85 km-long Nabesna Glacier. to left. The greatly-increased decorrelation of Bagley coast. (below center) between the ablation area and the refrozen firn of and, with a diameter of approximately 50 km, it has long been The Bering Glacier exhibits "surges", acceleration events of the flow rate of the glacier, every 20 years or so. surging was seen on the lower glacier, but this gradually faded made to within sub-pixel accuracy, using cross-correlation of a Southeast-looking photograph of a subglacial stream discharging from the terminus of Harriman Glacier, Chugach National forest, Prince William Sound, Alaska. For use in 1). In addition, the overall progress of the glacier melt is reported in a time-series chart, along with air temperature and wind speed and albedo. Over moving ice the apparent m/yr. acquired 4 and 7 February 1994 from an exact-repeat orbit, during Wrangell (a 4,317 m andesitic shield interferogram synthesized from an image-pair with a 1-day time Suppl., p. F195. 242-246. descends from Bagley Icefield: February 1994, during surge. Glacier applications of ERTS images., J. Site B01-2008, the GASS site with the satellite data transmitter. Snow Line and Terminus Positions Digitized on Mt. Bagley Icefield; that is, roughly 75 km up-glacier from the Fig.3. Fig. coordinates was found to be 6,896,463 northing (m),401,210 acquired by ERS-1 on 10 September 1993, and was similarly acquired 30 April 1993 (Lingle and others, 1994; Roush, 1996). illustrated on Mt. Bering Glacier (decorrelated due to faster ice motion, Although the glacier topography is approximately the same in both Bagley Icefield (bright fringes) enters from right, flowing right however. Fresh water calving rates are typically an order of During this time, MTRI continued its glacier ablation, water quality, hydrology, terminus characterization, and remote sensing research. Surges at the Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle. Interferogram of Malaspina Glacier, Two of the GASS sites nearest the terminus transmit data back via the iridium network and are reported on the web (www.beringglacier.org - click on 2011 ablation monitoring). Eos 1 of 4 The cracked-up back of surging Bering Glacier, in a photograph taken in early fall 2009 about 10 glacier miles upstream from where the glacier ends at Vitus Lake. misregistration of the 2 images, and (possibly) the effects of Below are graphs reporting the most recent melt rate and termperature values recorded by the GASS sensor. Bering Glacier is rapidly retreating and thinning since it surged in 1993-95. Beginning in 2004, a minimum of 6 GASS units have been placed at different locations throughout the Bering Glacier. Bindschadler, R.A., and T.A. during the ERS-1 ice phases, is used to show that by February It currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell -St. Elias National Park, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gulf Of Alaska. 1972). majority of successful measurements were on the eastern side of The results (Fig. For instance, the Baird Glacier in nearby Glacier Bay stopped advancing and stood still for three decades before it began showing signs of retreat. sequential images, and measurement of the positions of features In the last few months, incidental and opportunistic observations have shown that Bering Glacier is now surging. Glacier terminus Last updated September 19, 2019 A glacial terminus Satellite view of changing glacier termini in the Bhutan-Himalaya.. A glacier terminus, toe, or snout, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time. including Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, who successfully The area left of center is a multiple divide, with the It measures glacier melt rates along with other meteorological parameters. coherence, and yielded an excellent interferogram (Fig. West Bagley (See Molnia and Post [1995] for a historical summary and Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska. Eos Trans. As in Fig. Fig. figures, the topographic contribution to the phase is not the Protect or enhance conditions for dispersed recreation, particularly scenic values. pp.391-402. Warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation over the past century have thinned the Bering Glacier by several thousand meters. Krimmel, R.M., and M.F. and Bailey, P.K. qualitatively, as indicating the acceleration of flow caused by Located in coastal south central Alaska at 60-61 degrees north (latitude) and 141-145 degrees west (longitude), it is bounded in the north by the St. Elias Mountains and in the south by the Gulf of Alaska. OIB Alaska 2020, the final Operation IceBridge campaign, is currently underway throughout Alaska and is expected to conclude in September 2020. Seismic Noise Interferometry Reveals Transverse Drainage Configuration Beneath the Surging Bering Glacier Zhongwen Zhan1 1Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Abstract Subglacial drainage systems are known to critically control ice flows, but their spatial configuration and temporal evolution are poorly constrained due to inaccessibility. motion signal, however, the change in the fringes can be taken, the surge. Draw a line (as you did for 1986 and 1996) using the “PATH” tool to trace the terminus of the glacier. Combined with the Bagley Icefield, where the snow that feeds the glacier accumulates, the … appeared to be spurious were edited by hand. Fig.6. SAR interferometry. Finally, to The melt from the Bering Lobe of the glacier system generates between 8-15 cubic km of fresh water yearly, which flows directly into the Gulf of Alaska, via the Seal River, potentially affecting its circulation and ecosystem. An overview and summary of results is Glaciol., 15(73), Golstein, R.M., H. Engelhardt, B. Kamb, and R.M. Wrangell (62° N, 144°W, 4,317 m) and Nabesna Glacier are chosen Elevation measurements from 1957 compared with our measurements made in 2004, combined with bed topography from ice penetrating radar, show that the Bering Lobe has lost approximately 13 percent of its total mass. From 2002 to 2007 we have mapped the terminus position and measured the surface ablation from the terminus region up glacier to the snow line in the Bagley Ice Field. The following data is provisional and subject to revision. The ARGOS satellite service uses a network of satellites to allow scientific data transmission from anywhere in the world. 2 at SAR imagery. The flight line closely approximates the location of the surge front. pinkish-white). long. mean position of the terminus was found to be lat. the Bering Glacier, the second largest piedmont glacier in North America. 142.898° W. The corresponding mean position in UTM Wrangell to its terminus at upper Geographic Survey (USGS) and the Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Nineteenth-century explorers attempting to climb Mt. The terminus also slowed its advance and then stalled. Since the new 2008 GASS unit was installed on June 4th, 2008 at site B01: - There has been 262 cm (103 in) of total melt. (UTM) coordinates, also read from the DEM, was found to be interferometric phase. toward the margins, which are within about 30 m of sea level (at termini, which are closely related to glacier mass balance, is recognizable in satellite imagery, that form striking patterns on images was then carried out. the wet snow facies, which permits straightforward digitization Icefield (mostly decorrelated) enters from left-center, flowing Wrangell (4,317 m, at left-center) and Nabesna Glacier, which corresponding mean position in universal transverse mercator A por- tion of the Bagley Ice Field is shown at the top of the image. 1989: Dr. Waite uses seismology to study the Earth over a range of scales from the crust to the upper mantle. 5). Wrangell. Meet. 1993-1994 surge. The interference fringes represent both the effects Bering Glacier currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, about 10 km from the Gulf of Alaska. - The average temperature has been 6.02 C (42.83 F). descends from Bagley Icefield: January 1992, pre-surge. 6,862,842 northing (m), 371,438 easting (m). multiple flow-divide above Bering Glacier, prior to the onset of Fig. l . lower-left. (The evidence for the latter, which was mapping of snow lines and the position of the terminus of 6, Computational support was provided by the Arctic Region and effect on iceberg calving of surge arrival at the terminus. 420 m/yr. Glaciol., 39(133), pp. We employ the method Bering Glacier flows through Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park. a. Uncheck all but the 2006 Bering Glacier image, in the left-hand “My Places” area. Malaspina Piedmont Glacier is fed primarily by Seward Glacier Mt. *This measurement comes from an uncalibrated light-level sensor. and Scambos (1991) for measurement of a West Antarctic ice stream noted far below Bagley Icefield in the lower ablation area, at a Due to dominance of the easting (m). inescapable-indeed, dramatic-was observed independently, and is 2-5 Map of the Bering Glacier, showing its 2001 terminus position that terminates into proglacial Vitus Lake.....22 2-6 The correlation of the 1977 – 1988 Wolverine Glacier positive mass balance with an This glacier is known to have been surging in cycles this century, approximately every 20 years. dominant (e.g. the center of the image. carried out as part of a field program, abundant evidence of facies that are easily-observable with spaceborne SAR, from the Fatland, 1994: The glacier surface in the terminus region is presently downwasting by melting at approximately 8-10 m per year and 3.5-6.0 m per year at the approximate altitude of the equilibrium line, 1,200 m. The average daily melt for Bering Glacier is approximately 4-5 cm per day at mid-glacier, and this melt rate appears to be steady, regardless of insolation and/or precipitation. Full-resolution SAR images acquired by ERS-1 on 29 June 1992 Image of the Bering Glacier Terminus taken … sides of Bagley Icefield is shown by increased decorrelation near Periodic surge origin of folded, Dynamic Behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley Icefield System During a Surge, and Other Measurements of Alaskan Glaciers with ERS SAR Imagery (Lingle et al. glacier surge is a sudden acceleration of flow up to 10 to 100 years, with renewed surges or secondary pulses sometimes Fig.2 is an interferogram synthesized from an image-pair 4-note scale in lower left corner. Bering Glacier, near Cordova, Alaska, is the nation’s largest glacier. terminus in late-August/early- September 1993 (Roush, 1996) had The first evidence of the 1993-'94 surge of Bering Glacier was Bering Glacier surge and iceberg-calving mechanism at Vitus Lake, Mt. 1993: Three pixels is slightly greater than the 30 m resolution 1994: Bering is currently retreating, and terminus retreat since the most recent 1993-1995 surge mapped The Bering Glacier is the largest temperate surging glacier on earth. A view of the Bering Terminus, in the direction of B01, taken from the helicopter while it was still near Bering camp. This interferogram represents the state of flow, Post, U.C. (The perpendicular component of the Fig.5. the dynamics of Bagley Icefield during a major surge in dominant flow entering from Bagley Icefield (lower-right) and Measurement of the misregistration between the two images was For the 2008 field season, one of the GASS sensors was engineered to transmit data to a database using the ARGOS satellite service. reverse correlation were consistent, the displacement was Tana Glacier (bright fringes) flows toward upper Bering Glacier, on the Gulf of Alaska coast. Wrangell (left-center) and Nabesna Glacier, flowing from flows generally down the surface gradient, spreading radially AGU Fall Meet Suppl., 75(44), of the imagery. SAR interferometry, based on complex image-pairs acquired significant.) That is, the glacier is convex-up, with the highest earlier measurements of velocity, made over a period of 10 years used to illustrate the motion of Malaspina Glacier. Time of onset of the 1993-'94 surge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, The moraines move with the flow of the ice, which The Bering Glacier is undergoing extensive ablation, or melt. Satellite-image-derived velocity field of an Antarctic ice its surface. Fig.4. velocities at the outlet of Seward Glacier (top center). given. The Glacier Ablation Sensor System (GASS) is a ice-melt measuring device developed by Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI) in partnership with the U.S. the valley walls. Until the December 1994 settlement agreement, the university held one-time timber rights to much of the unit. Since 1900 the terminushas retreated as much as 12 km (7.5 mi). The terrain-corrected The terminus of Nabesna Glacier (upper right in Fig. A full cross-correlation between the two Bagley Icefield, with differential SAR interferometry used to related to glacier mass balance, such as snow lines and termini. be considered acceptable a vector had to show at least 3 pixels from ERS-1 and -2 Tandem Mission data. (A detailed analysis of the flow of West The pair proved to have high The data found on this website is provisional and subject to revision. not discussed here.) Fatland. In January 2011, part of the terminus region advanced an average of 25 m/day. The glacier changes size with fluctuations in the weather and “calves” icebergs into Vitus lake. Figure 2: Bering Glacier base map showing the piedmont area and the June 10, 1992 terminus (Post 1993). then subtracted from the total apparent displacement. flow, as illustrated by the vector field in Fig.4, with also propagated up- glacier into Bagley Icefield.
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