to 1,000 B.C. The Battle Over the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England, hÎOwh◊y rAmDa_hO;k rOmaEl hÎOwh◊y tEaEm …whÎyVm√rˆy_lRa hÎyDh rRvSa rDb∂;dAh, rRpEs_lRa ÔKyRlEa yI;t√rA;bî;d_rRvSa MyîrDb√;dAh_lD;k tEa ÔKVl_bDtV;k rOmaEl lEa∂rVcˆy yEhølTa, hwhy rma hk rmal hwhy tam whymry la hyh rCa rbdh, rps la Kyla ytrbd rCa Myrbdh lk ta Kl btk rmal larCy yhla, “The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD God of Israel, saying, Write thee all the words that I have spoken unto thee in a book…” (Jer 30:1-2). also MS D). ed., trans. The central argument for the primacy of Hebrew as the cradle of vowels systems, as discussed in Chapter 3, seems to be that the spread and incorporation of vowels into other languages would have been more widespread if these vowels had been propagated by the more widespread language of Aramaic (noting that the Aramaic language and alphabet are similar to and closely related to that of … Kaf, Mem, … 410, “The Gift of Prophecy in the Old and New Testaments,” F. David Farnell, Bibliotheca Sacra  149:596 (Oct 92). 63, Gray, Edward McQueen. I submit that it is the modern Hebrews who affixed them, in order to give a proper sense and meaning to the Hebrew language. Branch, 1600 Leonard St., N. W., Grand Rapids, MI 49504) as they have been since its formation in 1831. For example, John Morinus (1591-1659), Catholic convert from Protestantism, represents typical counter-reformation apologetic: The reason why God ordained the Scriptures to be written in this ambiguous manner [without points] is because it was His will that every man should be subject to the Judgment of the Church, and not interpret the Bible in his own way. [9]  Among the Jews, Levita’s “denying the divine origin and antiquity of the vowel-points was regarded not only as heterodoxy, but as a most unpardonable sin.”[10]  The idea of the recent addition of the points was popular among the Catholics, for it lent support to their idea of the superiority of the Latin Vulgate to the Hebrew (and Greek) original, formally canonized in the Council of Trent,[11] and became a tool in anti-Protestant polemic, for the ambiguity which resulted from the removal of the points mitigated the Reformers’ doctrine of the  perspicuity of Scripture and supported the Romanist contention for the necessity of infallible interpretation by their organization.[12]. If all he saw was as ו, he would not be able to argue for the name to be rendered with an “O” over “Αυ”. When God revealed Himself so to Jeremiah, did the prophet write down the pointed Hebrew text above,[1] with the addition of accent marks, or only the unpointed consonants—or perhaps even only those consonants without the so-called vowel letters? It is not certain exactly when or how he came to believe in the originality and inspiration of the points, but certainly it would appear from his example, among others, that this position on the points found its way into English theological institutions early in the Reformation era, where it could influence coming generations of ministers and other students. & enlarg. which is diversified, or placed in a different position.11)John Gill, A Brief Memoir of the Life and Writtings of the Late Rev John Gill (John Rippon) Baptist Standard Bearer, 1999, p. 51-51 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_11").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_11", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); The Yodh and Chirek appear as יִ with the dot below being the Chirek. [15]              i. e., “At the time of St. Jerome, the points did not as yet exist, and the whole Bible was read without them. 308. pgs. For seeing that the reading of the Bible is so difficult, and so liable to various ambiguities, from the very nature of the thing, it is plan that it is not the will of God that every one should rashly and irreverently take upon himself to explain it;  nor to suffer the common people to expound it at their pleasure; but that in those things, as in other matters respecting religion, it is His will that the people should depend upon the priests.[18]. People who are fluent in the language do not need vowels to read Hebrew, and most things written in Hebrew in Israel are written without vowels. One also notices statements in the Talmud such as:  “Said Mar Zutra, “Read the verse as though the vowels yielded not, that they may learn, but that they may teach” (Bavil Tractate Hagigah), which certainly look like evidence for the existence of the points at the time of its composition. 1, London, England:  Soncino Press, 1933. IV, p. 140, Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Harper Borther (New York, 1896) p. 344, Thomas D. Ross, Evidences for the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points, p. 9; accessible at, Dean Burgeon, Cause of Corruption of the New Testament Text, Sovereign Grace Publishers, Inc., 1998, p. 27, Spiros Zodhiates, Hebrew-Greek Key Word Study Bible, AMG Publishers, 1991, p. 820, Dr. Thomas M. Strouse, “A Review of and Observations about Peter Whitfield’s A Dissertation on the Hebrew Vowel-Points,”, see Heath Henning, “Deistic Inspiration or Preserved Inerrancy,”, Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 15; accessible at, Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 3-4; accessible at, Thomas O. Lambdin, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd. (London: 1973), p. XIV, Thomas O. Lambdin, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd. (London: 1973), p. XVIII, Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 5; accessible at, Will and Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization: The Age of Reason Begins, Simon and Schuster (New York, NY: 1961), Vol. [W]e acknowledge the text of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Chaldee [Aramaic] . 295. ), Hendrickson Publishers (Peabody, Massachusetts: 1896, Fifth Printing, 2012) Vol. The Septuagint version translated the Hebrew scriptures into Greek. II and Mark 16:15-16 and Ac 8:37-38 in chapter XXVIII of the Westminster Confession of Faith (pg. In Byzantine and medieval times, scribes added vowels and signs of punctuation, musical notations, and marginal variants.”2)Samuel Terrien, The Psalms: Strophic Structure and Theological Commentary, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (Grand Rapids, MI: 2003), p. 25 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_2").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_2", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); However, it can be proven that men were familiar with the Hebrew vowels at earlier dates than A.D. 500-1000. The Hebrew Vowel system. . [76]  The second yet more radical school, maintained that the Jews designedly corrupted the Hebrew through the insertion of the points and letters, and that, as “their last shift to change their evasions of the truth,” they made “the words different from what they were, or of another root, or of another signification, than the words would have been without pointing in the context.”[77]  To this school belonged William Romaine (1714-1795), friend of Whitefield and chaplain to the Countess of Huntingdon, along with Bishop Horne,  Parkhurst, and others. as it is now printed with vowels, to be the only fountain, out of which we must draw the pure truth of the Scriptures of the Old Testament” (pg. 54, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, Gleason L. Archer. 115. Jobes, Karen H. & Silva, Moisés, Invitation to the Septuagint, Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Books, 2000. Chapter 2: The Hebrew Vowels 9 2.2 Hebrew Vowel Charts. (cf. If this sounds like Greek to you, you're not far off! While the current customary evangelical position on the points is less destructively radical than the extremes that appeared in England after the common adoption of Cappel’s textual critical philosophy, seventeenth century theological orthodoxy, with its general acceptance of a dictation view of inspiration and its confidence in the verbal, plenary preservation and authority of the available Biblical textus receptus, both in Hebrew and Greek, which provided a strong theological support for the doctrine of the originality and authority of the Hebrew vowels, is generally abandoned—so the problem of the multivocality of the text for the evangelical supporter of Sola Scriptura remains. “The fragments from Qumran, at this relatively early age, were written with Hebrew letters only, consecutively traced without word spacing. [Capellus writes, translated into English] ‘What Harm will it be, if we take both the Punctuations, and both the resultant Senses?’  I own I think there is a good deal. XX, 37, and means ‘fetter’. This may include new incidents introduced into the Scriptures, unheard-of statements, name changes, and other perversions of our Lord’s Divine sayings—such phenomena are observed to follow upon the mere omission of the article, or the insertion of an expletive, or the change of a single letter.”15)Dean Burgeon, Cause of Corruption of the New Testament Text, Sovereign Grace Publishers, Inc., 1998, p. 27 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_15").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_15", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); A single letter would include, for example, a Hebrew vowel that appears as a simple dot (Chirek). Technically the comment of Origen spells the name Annan which is wrong as the Septuagint spells the name as Αυναν which would be accurately rendered Aunan. [3], II. Table 16 - Long Vowels in EBHP by Origin. cf. . During the Nicene Post-Nicene era of Christian history (A.D. 311-590), only two men had a working knowledge of Hebrew language, the most scholarly was Jerome (A.D. 345-420) who translated the Bible into Latin from the original Hebrew and Greek. [35]              “Jean-Alphonse Turrettini contributed to the demise of what he referred to as Reformed scholasticism through the abrogation of the Formula Consensus [in 1706], his emphasis upon the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, his use of Cartesian philosophical categories in theological discourse, and his desire to present a form of religion that would be credible even to the deist. Thomas Ross records, “Medieval Judaism accepted the inspiration of the Hebrew [vowel] points and generally dated them to Moses, although Ezra was often held to have exercised a prophetic role in the standardization of the text; the available copies were considered perfectly preserved from the time of their original inspiration, and not only consonants and vowels, but Masorah and tradition … The first, and less radical, considered that “the Masoretic punctuation is an interpretation of the text made by the Jews, probably not earlier than the eighth century, and that, accordingly, our public translations… close copies of the Hebrew pointed text, are in reality only versions at second hand, translations of the Jews’ interpretation of the Old Testament”[75]  and the Hebrew text itself “is considerably injured, and stands in need of frequent emendation.”  It put great weight upon early versions and made conjectures based on flights of fancy that greatly undermined the authority of Scripture. . Between the fifth and tenth centuries of the Common Era, Karaite Hebrew Scribes (called the Masorites) of the Ben Asher family developed a system of vowels to be added to the Biblical Hebrew texts. “With very few exceptions a syllable must begin with a single consonant followed at least by one vowel.”22)Thomas O. Lambdin, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd. (London: 1973), p. XVIII jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_22").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_22", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Such tampering would literally double the Hebrew Scripture as a vowel is placed under every consonant and an accent exists on every word. . The thought that the Hebrew vowels were in the original autographs of the Bible, handwritten by the prophets who originally received God’s words, most likely sound ridiculous to the average Christian today because the scholars have consistently taught us the Hebrew vowels did not exist until a later date. The Jewish proselyte to Catholicism Nicholas de Lyra (c. 1270-1340) also asserted the late addition of the points. Though the quotations from contemporary scholars, theologians, and apologists on the denial of Hebrew vowels in the original autographs of the Bible can be extended indefinitely; one, more recent of such statements should suffice. The Complete Hebrew Vowel List. Perhaps this might be sometimes allowed in humane Compositions;  but the Case is different with regard to Divine Writings. Ironically, it was his own father, François Turrettini, who was the main protagonist in favor of the creed in Geneva. [2]                The Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647, 1:8, pg. How does the pointing, or lack thereof, of the text influence the doctrine of inspiration? Jan 14, 2018 - Explore k mangan's board "Hebrew vowels" on Pinterest. For the sake of an infallible, available Bible which could provide a sound basis for opposition to an infallible church, English Protestants early rose to the defense of the originality of the Hebrew points. The letter kaph looks like this כ. The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Bavil Nedarim states: Now, he who maintains that remuneration is for the teaching of accentuation,… why does he reject the view that it is for teaching accents? Levita had stated that no man was to “add to nor diminish from anything which the men of the Great Synagogue[41] have determined as regards plene and defective, Keri and Kethiv, the major and minor letters, the open and closed sections of the Pentateuch, &c., &c.  Neither must he gainsay the statements of the Massorites respecting the vowel-points and the accents, the number of words which they have counted, and marked with mnemonical signs.”[42]  If one replaced “the Massorites” with “the men of the Great Synagogue” in this statement, it could easily be thought to have issued from the pen of a Buxtorf. The variance evident here can be contributed to one of three things: 1) the English edition of the text made a typo. Ancient Hebrew Text To Greek To Latin . But vowel points were added to help alleviate any misconception. 1: A Study of Theological Prolegomena, Saint Louis, MS: Concordia, 1970. Vowel marks were introduced to facilitate learning how to read and pronounce words. Hebrew Letters / Final Consonants & Vowels The following letter chart is very useful to quickly see the letters, their shapes, their names, and the numerical values (Gematria). [58]  Buxtorf Sr. had written his Tiberias, defending the originality and inspiration of the points, in 1620, to which Cappel had replied with his 1623 Arcanum punctationis revelatum;  Buxtorf Jr. published a series of dissertations on the antiquity on the Hebrew language and its antiquity in 1645, and a specific rebuttal of the Acranum punctationis in 1648. It was done about 200 B.C. Breen, A. E., A General and Critical Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture, Rochester, NY:  The John P. Smith Printing House, 1897. 296-297, Loonstra. John Moncrieff, professor of Oriental Languages at the Andersonian University, who argued in his 1833 Essay on the Antiquity and Utility of the Hebrew Vowel Points that the sounds of the points, marked in the text in some manner, were authoritative and pre-Christian, even if the current signs were invented by the Masorites, lamented: Without anticipating any evidence which may be advanced, or any judgment to which we may be led on the question, as to the authenticity of the Vowel-Points, I hesitate not to affirm, that the great indifference which has, for a considerable time, prevailed, to acquire any critical knowledge of the Hebrew language, has been, not only because many public Teachers have been averse to teach it in any other way than according to the letters, but have boldly proscribed the method of reading with the Vowel-Points, in the language of bitter ridicule, and magisterial condemnation… The practice of exclusively teaching the language by means of the letters alone, in so many of our Seminaries, when viewed in connexion with the acrimonious and condemnatory language, employed against the other method of reading, has not only produced in students an aversion to be qualified to judge with discrimination on the vital question, as to the antiquity of the Vowel-Points, and other questions connected with the Language;  but there is reason to believe that this resolutely exclusive course of procedure, has had the unhappy influence, though no doubt far from what was intended, to produce a great indifference, with many who are professionally occupied with Theology, to acquire any knowledge of this original language, even in its very first principles.[79]. So they developed a vowel point system to know how to pronounce it. Neither side seemed to decisively win the day;  although the Enlightenment zeitgeist assisted the anti-vowalists over time, their antiquity found a continuing chain of advocates such as Joseph Cooper,[65] Samuel Clark,[66] Whitfield,[67] and John Gill. Allen Menzies, D.D. A consideration of the origin, inspiration, and authority of the Hebrew vowel points has tremendous bibliological and hermeneutical significance; controversy surrounding them generated great heat in the Reformation and post-Reformation eras and is, indeed, still with Christiandom today, when atheistic presuppositions plague much of the study of the historiography and philology of Hebrew and … 156, “The Vowel-Points Controversy in the XVI and XVII Centuries,” B. Jewish teachers… seem either to have had or to have affected the most unreasonable opinions as to the infallible accuracy with which their scriptures had been handed down;  they held that every letter, vowel-point, and accent which was found in the modern copies of the Old Testament was of divine authority;  and that not a single thing, however minute, had been added, altered, or omitted, since the time of the sacred writers. Box 15 - Distinctive Features of Hebrew Vowels. [72]  Indeed, copying Horne, even the Catholic writer A. E. Breen in his 1897 A General and Critical Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture stated that “By some… learned men… the origin of the Hebrew vowel points is maintained to be coeval with the Hebrew language itself:  while others assert them to have been first introduced by Ezra after the Babylonian captivity… some few writers of respectability continue strenuously to advocate their antiquity.”[73]  However, while apologetic for the inspiration of a pointed text did not cease in the Reformation era, but has continued even to the present day, in the eighteenth century the anti-vowelists seized the dominant position, which they have since maintained. . 2nd English ed. The idea of learning the Hebrew language without employing the points at all spread widely.[78]. Sperling, Harry & Simon, Maurice, trans., The Zohar, vol. The 1524-1525 five volume Biblia Rabbinica edited by Ben Chayyim, as originally published with targums, Massorah, and rabbinic commentaries, is available from Good Books, 2456 Devonshire Road, Springfield, IL, 62703. [26]              pg. Durell, Judd, Lowth, Blayney, Newcome, Wintle, Horsley, Good, and Boothroyd. The Vowels. 55-57, “Life of Elias Levita,” in Ginsburg. Archaeological Evidence for the New Testament as the Word of God. Tov, Emanuel, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, 2nd ed. Sanhedrin 11a; Seder Olam Rabbah 30 [quoting Prov 22:17]; Jer Taanith 2.1; Jer Makkoth 2.4-8; Bab. Recollect, I beseech you, the names of the Rabbins of Tiberias, from the first situation of the University there to the time that it expired;  and what at length do you find, but a kind of men mad with Pharisaism, bewitching with traditions and bewitched, blind, guileful, doting, they must pardon me if I say, magical and monstrous! In traditional Hebrew texts and as well as modern writings, the vowels are not written, only … A consideration of the origin, inspiration, and authority of the Hebrew vowel points has tremendous bibliological and hermeneutical significance;  controversy surrounding them generated great heat in the Reformation and post-Reformation eras and is, indeed, still with Christiandom today, when atheistic presuppositions plague much of the study of the historiography and philology of Hebrew and dominate both higher and lower biblical criticism. Letters of Light is a unique and insightful exposition of how the letters of the alef-beis continue to be a source of creation and inspiration. And, indeed, though the Points are represented as very numerous, yet there is the one point in the whole language, and that is Chirek [.] that Ezra, by divine inspiration, published an edition of the sacred books, exhibiting in every page and line, an infallibly correct and perfect text… This tradition had obtained footing in the church so early as the days of Tertullian” (pg. But it constantly happens that from such exceedingly minute and seemingly trivial mistakes serious misrepresentations of the Holy Spirit’s meaning have occurred. and notes by C. D. Ginsburg, 2nd ed., New York, NY:  KTAV, 1968. Cambridge, England: Parker society, 1843 (orig. Firstly, they really thought, or tried to convince themselves, that the vowel points were ancient and went back to the historical origin of the books. Thus the masorah is a fetter upon the text, i.e., it fixes its reading. R. A. Torrey, A. C. Dixon, etc., Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Books, 1970, reprint of the original 1917 ed. Without some manner of theological presuppositions about the preservation of the Hebrew text, beyond a simple acceptance of the inspiration of the autographa, is assurance of an authoritative and available revelation from God, as sure as the audible voice of the Father that Peter heard on the Mount of Transfiguration (2 Pet 1:16-21), possible? The Hebrew Alphabet. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors; however, the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. Semitic languages like Hebrew and Arabic evolved a unique way to write vowels... with consonants! 2, The Fundamentals, eds. Pelikan, Jaroslav, Reformation of Church and Dogma, Chicago, IL:  University of Chicago Press, 1985. 1583). Men, how unfit, how unable, how foolish, for the undertaking of so divine a work! on Is 9:6), pg. Pick, B., “The Vowel-Points Controversy in the XVI and XVII Centuries,” Hebraica, (Chicago, IL:  University of Chicago Press), 8:3-4 (April-June 1892). [40]              i. e., Francis Turretin argues, against those that would undermine the authority of the Hebrew received text on lower critical grounds, that “even if the points were lately added… it would not follow that the punctuation was a merely human invention, depending solely upon the human will… according to this latter hypothesis the points may not have been from the beginning as to form, still it cannot be denied that they were always as to sound and value or power,” (pg. Moncrieff pleaded that teachers, regardless of their view of the points, at least teach their students what they were, had to defend the existence of the Hebrew dual, attack the anti-point reading paradigm then in vogue, which led to countless bizarre and false vocalizations, and argue that “Not only some of the best ancient translations, but our own excellent authorized version, and some other comparatively modern translations into other languages which are held in high esteem, have been executed according to the present written system of punctuation, because all these translators held this system to be of the greatest utility and essential to the integrity of the text, even though some of them held that it was only a traditional reading, however correct, before the time which was fixed upon for the invention and notation of these written signs, of which the system is made up… [t]he fullest, most critical, and every way the best Lexicons and Grammars of the Hebrew language, in more ancient or later times, have been executed on the principle of having a strict regard to the reading according to the Vowel-Points…”[80]  While Moncrieff does make positive arguments for the antiquity of the points from passages in Josephus, Philo, the LXX, and other ancient witnesses, the overriding purpose of his composition is less his readers’ adoption of the position of Buxtorf on the points than a desire that the simple fundamentals of Hebrew grammar and syntax be taught and prized against rampant alternative systems of vocalization that wreaked havoc upon the text. Now as our Lord refers to the least Letter (yod) in the Hebrew language, …so it need not be wondered at, that he should refer to the least Point in the language, from which all the rest come. 1., Gaebelein, Frank E., gen ed., Grand Rapids, MI;  Zondervan, 1990, CD version by OakTree Software. ed. [41]          The Mishnah in Aboth i.1 names the men of the Great Synagogue (the scribes of Ezra’s time) as the successors of the prophets. . Bishop, George Sayles, The Doctrines of Grace and Kindred Themes, New York, NY:  Gospel Publishing House, 1919 (reprinted, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1977). Miller, H. S., General Biblical Introduction, 9th ed., Houghton, NY:  Word-Bearer Press, 1956. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Whitaker, William, Disputations on Holy Scripture, Morgan, PA:  Soli Deo Gloria, 2000, reprint, first published in 1588. Indeed, many among the Catholics had, to better oppose the Jews, held to the late origin of the points for some time in the medieval era. Today, the different vowel marks are used to describe long or short vowels, a difference that only people who study the Hebrew language rules (at high-school or university level) are aware of. The controversy continued through the century; orthodoxy finally yielded the points, and a modest step was taken toward appreciating the bible as the majestic expression of a people.24)Will and Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization: The Age of Reason Begins, Simon and Schuster (New York, NY: 1961), Vol. In course of time it was connected with masar (to hand down), and thus came to mean traditional reading.”7)footnote #8 of The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Bavil Nedarim, 37b; accessible at http://www.come-and-hear.com/nedarim/nedarim_37.html jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_7").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_7", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); The editor then follows the statement by expressing the average view of the Tiberian Masorite Theory that the original Hebrew was without brakes in the letters consisting of only consonants, but in saying such he contradicts the entire passage. 295-306 of. Hebrew diphthongs are combination of vowels acting as a unit and producing a unique sound: Other Learning Resources In the ten volumes of the Ante-Nicene Fathers, the most common typo is switching u with n, so words like “aud” or “bnt” appear on occasions. 2) the translator could have mistook the ?Greek letter Upsilon “υ” for a Nu “ν,” thus rendering it as Annan instead of Aunan, or; 3) this same mistaken identity of the Greek letters could have occurred sometime in the past by transcribers and the English translator accurately rendered the transcribers mistake. “The idea of the recent addition of the points was popular among the Catholics, for it lend support to their idea of the superiority of the Latin Vulgate to the Hebrew (and Greek) original, formally canonized in the Council of Trent, and became a tool in anti-Protestant polemic, for the perspicuity of Scripture and support the Romanist contention for the necessity of infallible interpretation by their organization.”23)Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 5; accessible at http://evans.landmarkbiblebaptist.net/04-BibleCorrectionExamples/Battle%20Over%20the%20Hebrew%20Vowel%20Points,%20Ros.pdf jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_23").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_23", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Protestants first resisted such ideas but slowly gave up the inspired vowels. However, by affirming the basic integrity of the Hebrew copies,[61]  their perspicuity through the matres lectionis, and their fundamentally greater authority than that of translations, especially the Vulgate (and so maintaining his opposition to the Catholic formulation of Trent), he sought to avoid the theological and hermeneutical quagmire, which seemed to lead either to rationalism or Rome, of the wholesale acceptance of Cappel’s position, and so adopted a position on the points similar to Levita. 117-123 of Turretin’s. While working on a commentary for Psalm 1, I was planing to write an excursus on the how the phrase “counsel” and “sitteth in... Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Would the people be able to “write upon [the stones] all the words of [the] law” (Deuteronomy 27:3) so that they could “keep all the commandments” (27:1) in them with an unpointed copy? 77-78. How could the Talmud, written before the accent marks were supposedly invented, tell us that Nehemiah expounded the Scripture and explained the accent marks in them more than 1,000 years before they were invented? Ironside, H. A., Notes on the Book of Proverbs. Click the chart below for more information about a particular vowel type: Hebrew Diphthongs. [12]              “no one, relying on his own skill, shall, — in matters of faith, and of morals pertaining to the edification of Christian doctrine… presume to interpret the said Scripture contrary to that sense which holy mother Church— whose it is to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the holy Scriptures— hath held and doth hold;  or even contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers;  even though such interpretations were never [intended] to be at any time published. Fulke, William, A Defense of the Sincere and True Translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English Tongue, against the Manifold Cavils, Frivolous Quarrels, and Impudent Slanders of Gregory Martin, one of the Readers of Popish Divinity, in the Traitorous Seminary of Rheims. [11]              “But if any one receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books [Bible with Apocrypha] entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin Vulgate edition… let him be anathema… Moreover, the same sacred and holy Synod… ordains and declares, that the said old and vulgate edition… be… held as authentic;  and that no one is to dare, or presume to reject it under any pretext whatever.”. Compare also the very early MS AA discovered in the Cairo Geniza: :NCl NyobwCb Mgrtmw NCl djb yrqtm tway Crpmw qyqj btk adh htyrwa ylm lk ty hynba lo Nwbtktw. [57]         Interestingly, Walton not only advocated an anti-vowel position, but he was a prime father of Old Testament textual criticism in general;  “the earlist list of guidelines suggested for the comparison of reading in the Hebrew Bible is that of Walton” (pg. . . These opinions were too hastily assumed as true by most of their Christian pupils.” pg. 6-7, Moncrieff, John, The History of the Controversy over the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points, Christian Holiness or Sanctification: A Summary, Shabir Ally & Thomas Ross Debate Review: “The New Testament Picture of Jesus: Is it Accurate?”, Assurance of Salvation in 1 John: The Tests of Life. He argued that “among the people of Israel, the seventy elders only could read and understand the mysteries of the holy books, that we call the Bible. [60]              pg. Walton’s position was strenuously opposed by Lightfoot, who had worked with him on the Polyglot and was probably the highest authority in Hebrew learning in England at the time, and by John Owen. 106, Turretin, Francis. Fulke even cites “an excellent learned papist . Gray, Edward McQueen, Old Testament Criticism:  Its Rise and Progress From the Second Century to the End of the Eighteenth;  A Historical Sketch, New York, NY:  Harper & Brothers, 1923. [6]  However, in 1538 Elias Levita, a famous Jewish grammarian and scholar, published his Massoreth Ha-Massoreth,[7] which asserted that the vowels had been added by the Masorites c. A. D. 500,[8]  although they represented the true vocalization and interpretation of the text as originally given by inspiration. The only difference between the two letters is that the bottom horizontal line on the beth extends slightly to the right of the vertical line, whereas no extension appears on the kaph.10)Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, Victor Books, 1986, p. 88-89 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_10").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_10", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); However, earlier commentators, such as John Gill, taught that the word “tittle” was to be understood as the vowels points of the Hebrew Scripture. [45]   The points, a human invention, could be altered when necessary, along with the consonants when they presented difficulties— ancient interpreters or translations could correct the standard Hebrew text when they seem to be better— even conjectural emendation, without any physical evidence, was at times possible. All spoken languages are composed of sounds generated in part by breathing, and linguists designate unrestricted air flowing over the vocal tract resulting in audible sounds as vowels. Gould, William H, & Quick, Charles W., Philadelphia, PA:  Leighton Publications, 1865. Muller, Richard A., Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics, vol. [78]              As, i. e., Horne suggests, pg. Within these vowel classes, there are five vowel types (a, e, i, o, u), though not all are attested in each of the vowel classes. to remark upon what Capellus says upon the Supposition, that there may be such Differences of reading, without Violence to the Sense . The Controversy Within England And Its Results, The positions that the Hebrew vowel points were coeval with the consonants, that they were of Masoretic origin but still authoritative, and that they were of Masoretic origin and consequently unauthoritative all found representatives in England. [70]              pg. The former pointing is seen in Ezech. As a carpenter employs tools to build a home, so G-d utilized the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew Alphabet, the alef-beis, to form heaven and earth. d.1 Diachronic Development of the Biblical Hebrew Vowel System. Smith, Miles, “The Translators to the Reader,” Preface to the King James Version of 1611, Accordance Bible Software module prepared by OakTree Software, Inc., from http://www.ebible.org/bible/kjv/Preface.htm. The Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (Targum Yerushalmi I) on Deuteronomy 27:8 reads, “And you shall write on the stones all the words of this Torah, an engraved and distinct writing, read in one language and translated into seventy languages” (Nynvyl Nyobyvb Mgrtymw Nvyl djb yrqtm vrpmw qyqj btk adj atyyrwa ymgtyp lk ty aynba lo Nwbwtkytw). . Owen likewise considered that any compromise of the divine origin and inspiration of the vowels would lead to disaster. Would the addition of points, accents, and other things to a supposedly consonantal original text violate “Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you” (Deut 4:2) and mean that the Old Testament was not “by [God’s] singular care and providence kept pure in all ages”? 9, p. 371; accessible at. Additional symbols (placed below or on top of letters) make vowels, known as nekkudot (dots).These nekkudot make a string of letters into pronounceable and meaningful words. Yoma 21b; Bab. . [24]              The entry of the originality of the points into Lutheran dogmatic tradition, with sources for further study, appears on pg. “Corrupt readings have occasionally resulted from the ancient practice of writing Scripture in the uncial character [all capital letters], without accents, without punctuation, and indeed without any division of the text or spacing between words.”8)Dean Burgon, Cause of Corruption of the New Testament Text, Sovereign Grace Publishers, Inc., 1998, p. 21 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_8").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_8", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Thomas Ross gives multitudes of other examples from the Talmudic texts about evidence for Hebrew vowel points.9)Thomas D. Ross, Evidences for the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points, p. 11-20; accessible at http://faithsaves.net/inspiration-hebrew-vowel-points/ jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_9").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_9", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); [Black are consonants, red are vowels, and blue are accent marks]. Whereas a jot is a whole letter, a tittle is only a part of a letter… For example, the Hebrew letter beth looks like ב. This interpretation follows a more logical consistency as the word “jot” being a transliteration of the smallest Hebrew consonant and the “tittle” from the Greek word Keraia as a transliteration of the Hebrew word Chirek—the smallest Hebrew vowel. Rippon, John, A Brief Memoir of the Life and Writings of the Late Rev John Gill, D. D., to which is added An Elegy on the Death of Dr. Gill, Benjamin Francis, London, England:  John Bennett, 1838. On the Continent, for example, by 1609, Amandus Polanus (1561-1610), professor of theology and Old Testament exegesis at the University of Basel,[19] argued for the inspiration of the points on the basis that Scripture teaches the inspiration of words, and not consonants alone, or merely thoughts, and that the faith was based on the words of the prophets, not of the Masorites. OakTree Software, Inc., Palm Springs Drive, Suite 100, Altamonte Springs, FL 32701. [21]   The points found numerous defenders among men like Gerardus, Junius, Gomarus, Polanus, Whitaker, Ussher, Rainolds, Buxtorf Sr. and Jr., Voetius, Deodatus, Lightfoot, and Heidegger. Despite the greater sympathy of Walton for Levita’s position than Cappel’s, those who followed him in asserting the novelty of the vowels tended to do exactly what John Owen had feared;  the points were widely rejected as modern, useless or worse than useless, and entirely unauthoritative, and the practices advocated in Cappellus’ Critica Sacra[74] of profligate conjectural emendation and the downgrading of the Hebrew text in favor of ancient versions multiplied rapidly. Kelley, Page H., Mynatt, Daniel S., & Crawford, Timothy G., The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia:  Introduction and Annotated Glossary, Grand Rapids, MI:  Eerdmans, 1998. [17]              In contrast with, for example, the opinion of De Valencia in the previous footnote. He said, “we have been at pains to learn from the Hebrews, comparing our own copies with theirs which have the confirmation of the versions, never subjected to corruption… to encourage students to pay more attention to such points…. Each letter represents a number. (BDAG), Chicago, IL:  University of Chicago Press, 2000. Thomas D. Ross, Evidences for the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points, p. 21-22; accessible at, The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Bavil Nedarim, 37b; accessible at, footnote #8 of The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Bavil Nedarim, 37b; accessible at, Dean Burgon, Cause of Corruption of the New Testament Text, Sovereign Grace Publishers, Inc., 1998, p. 21, Thomas D. Ross, Evidences for the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points, p. 11-20; accessible at, Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, Victor Books, 1986, p. 88-89, John Gill, A Brief Memoir of the Life and Writtings of the Late Rev John Gill (John Rippon) Baptist Standard Bearer, 1999, p. 51-51, W.E. Normally it only uses consonants, but diacritical marks above and below the letters are often added to indicate vowels as pronunciation aids when required. Liverpool, 1748. Indeed, the argument is not completely over;  while the overwhelming majority of modern Hebrew scholarship believes in the Masoretic addition of the points, some sections of fundamentalism still hold to a pointed autographa. i. exer. Allison, Gregg, “ Giovanni Bernardo De Rossi (1742–1831):  A Sketch Of His Life And Works, With Particular Attention Given To His Contributions To The Field Of Biblical Criticism,” Trinity Journal 12:1 (Spring 1991) 15-38. pgs. Furthermore, de Rossi’s contention that the Law would not be “very plain” as mandated in Deuteronomy 27:8 without vowels deserves serious consideration. Accordance Bible software, including Bible texts and numerous tools, including the Theological Journal Library, Version 5, published by Galaxie Software;  cf. William Fulke[50]  maintained their inspiration in 1583 when he published his A Defense of the Sincere and True Translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English Tongue, against the Manifold Cavils, Frivolous Quarrels, and Impudent Slanders of Gregory Martin,[51] one of the Readers of Popish Divinity, in the Traitorous Seminary of Rheims. 9, p. 371; accessible at  http://www.newadvent.org/fa thers/101506.htm jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_3").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_3", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); According to Bodie Hodge’s comment above, the Hebrew text in Origen’s day only had Hebrew consonants, which would read “nn,” and Origen would not be capable of drawing our attention to any variation from the Septuagint’s rendering.4)Technically the comment of Origen spells the name Annan which is wrong as the Septuagint spells the name as Αυναν which would be accurately rendered Aunan.
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