(3 points) THE INTERTIDAL ZONE AND BENTHIC ORGANISMS EPSS15 Lab #8 OUTLINE I. Intertidal zonation • Tides • Biotic zonation • Physical conditions & biotic interactions II. Typical organisms that inhabit this zone include lichens, green algae, brown algae, red algae, L. littorea's, and cyanobacteria. Some examples of these organisms include: hermit crabs, mussels, sea stars, types of algae, mollusks and many others. Animals living in the intertidal zone must be able to tolerate wide salinity variations. Organisms in the intertidal zone are adapted to an environment of harsh extremes. The upper intertidal zone has the least amount of time submerged in water. This activity will require students to document the phenomenon of vertical zonation by setting up a transect line from high to low levels and comparing abundances of species along the transect. The organisms that inhabit this zone must be well adapted to withstand exposure to air. Animals are also exposed to predators while the tide is out. They are found in high and mid-intertidal zones. These organisms specifically inhabit the area or zone between high and low tide along rocky coasts, sandy beaches or tidal wetlands/marshes. Arthropod (joint legged animals) Acorn barnacles (Balanus glandula) Acorn barnacles are some of the most common in the Pacific Northwest. Organisms living within the intertidal must be hardy and adaptable to tolerate conditions underwater as well as exposure to air. The intertidal zone is also home to several species from different phyla (Porifera, Annelida, Coelenterata, Mollusca, Arthropoda, etc. ). Intertidal organisms are no different. Also, acorn barnacles are able to survive along this zone. In the lower littoral zone, which remains submerged the majority of the time, the organisms which inhabit this zone are generally larger, and protected from predation from the crashing waves. As a result, it contains the greatest biodiversity within the intertidal zone. The intertidal zone is defined as the area between the high tidal mark and the low tidal mark. Several animal species reside within the intertidal zone, each divided by the zones created by the tide. Organisms inhabiting this zone are less tolerant to extreme changes in temperature, salinity and cannot withstand long periods without water. The intertidal zone is home to an abundance of aquatic organisms, like the barnacle, that can survive periods where they are not underwater. For those remarkable organisms that call the intertidal zone home, this is similar to what they experience on a daily basis. This region is also called the seashore and foreshore, and sometimes the littoral zone. Intertidal organisms & adaptations • Snails • Mussels • Limpets & Chitons • Crabs • Anemones • Echinoderms & Echinoids III. The intertidal zone is the habitat to numerous types of small organisms such as sea urchins, starfish, and many species of coral. In most adult barnacles, the sides and back of the animal are protected by five or six calcareous plates. They also have an “operculum” or The intertidal zone is the region of land below water at high tides and above water at low tides. The peritidal zone is similar but somewhat wider, extending from above the highest tide level to below the lowest. The distribution of organisms in particular zones is consistent with the influence of abiotic and biotic factors. The lower intertidal zone is usually submerged, only being exposed at very low tides. What type of tide would most likely decrease the abundance of aquatic organisms, and why? If sufficient nutrients are available, intertidal animals reproduce rapidly, so they constantly compete for space, light, and food. Along the coast of California, the intertidal zone spans a height of about 2.7 meters (9 feet), which is the extent between the … Intertidal Zone Animals.
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