Improving the Robustness of Question Answering Systems to Question Paraphrasing Wee Chung Gan Department of Computer Science National University of Singapore gan weechung@u.nus.edu Hwee Tou Ng Department of Computer Science National University of Singapore nght@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract Despite the advancement of question answer-ing (QA) systems and rapid improvements on held-out test … Test all probable and possible values of the assumptions and see if that crashes the formula. 355 0 obj > endobj Robustness tests were originally introduced to avoid problems in interlaboratory studies and to identify the potentially responsible factors [2].The robustness test [or placebo test, as Alberto Abadie likes to call it] means running our model for every single unit in the donor pool, and comparing the result with the original treated unit. This highly accessible book presents the logic of robustness testing, provides an operational definition of robustness that can be applied in all quantitative research, and introduces readers to diverse types of robustness tests. May 2013 – ISSN 1320-7229 (Print), ISSN 1448-5109 (Online) Download the Paper 756KB; The key hypothesis of the paper is that the OTD lenders became liquidity constrained when the securitisation market effectively shut down in 2007, and this increase in liquidity constraints, in turn, caused the OTD lenders to reduce new mortgage lending disproportionately. Issues related to On-line testing techniques, and more generally to design for robustness, are increasingly important in modern electronic systems. Rich in innovation and insight, Robustness Tests for Quantitative Research shows social scientists the way forward for improving the quality of inference with observational data. There are a number of factors that limit the testing we can do. Stress testing is a computer-simulated technique to analyze how banks and investment portfolios fare in drastic economic scenarios. In robustness analyses, we examine two falsification tests using director-interlocked firms, with (1) shocked directors serving on target boards for announced, but not completed, M&A deals, and (2) shocked directors who do not experience a decrease in board seats after M&A. A must-read!' If, in any case, the formula errors or becomes nonsensical, a further look into the formula logic may be required for that specific assumption. Tough enough to hit a wall, and keep going. The papers review the state of the art in statistical robustness and cover topics ranging from robust estimation to the robustness of residual displays and robust smoothing. The Step 0 Test certainly provides increased flexibility to simplify the annual impairment testing process. creditagricol.com. The stress test results confirm our model's resilience, as demonstrated over the past [...] three years, during the [...] worst of the crisis, and the financial robustness of our Group, which is among [...] the strongest in Europe. Obviously, you want the test to say the things correct, but be sure that if you repeat the test, or if someone repeats the test, you will have the same answer whether correct or not. Policy Publications, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE: Research-based policy recommendations on finance topics However, given the aforementioned FASB factors to consider when applying the Step 0 Test, it does not imply that no analysis needs to be performed. PDF | This paper examines the relationship between the Japanese Yen and the country's stock returns. Robustness Tests. significance level of the test is stable given small departures from the null, and the robustness of efficiency, i.e. With this enhanced capability and robustness of the finance function, businesses can emerge from the pandemic stronger. The need to automate and integrate Virtual Sales Operation, Digital HR, and Information Technology to finance processes have brought forth new software applications that help to test, integrate and implement digital technology under the COVID Scenario. creditagricol.com. Robustness tests. You will contribute to the continuing development of our global finance digital platform and will get the opportunity to have an impact in a dynamic department. Robustness against autocorrelation in time-series data is investigated for two tests of normality: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, in the class of normality tests using statistics based on the empirical cu¬mulative distribution function, and the Shapiro-Wilk analysis-of-variance test, which regresses the ordered sample values on the corresponding expected normal order statistics. If you say something wrong, at least say it all the time. $\endgroup$ – Francis Nov 8 '17 at 10:28 This column, taken from a recent Vox eBook, examines recent experiences and the risk-management literature. 498 Downloads; Abstract. Support and coordinate test activities before going live; Business partner for smaller development areas. Decrease the assumption, increase it, flip its sign, or make it zero, and see whether the formulas still calculate properly. Some consider a test to be robust if it has both the robustness of validity, i.e. Drives me nuts as a reviewer when authors describe #2 analyses as “robustness tests”, because it minimizes #2’s (huge) importance (if the goal is causal inference at least). power is still good given small departures from the specified alternative; and these qualities can be quantified through the use of influence functions. Jaffe (1974) and Mandelker (1974) propose to measure abnormal returns on a firm-specific basis and then form monthly calendartime portfolios using abnormal returns. Reliability is about robustness. NBER Working Paper No. While it might be easy to come up with a working robustness test for this dummy example, can any of you point me to any general frameworks for approaching the issue? In this paper, we propose an approach that attempts to make this trade-off more attractive; that is, we investigate ways to decrease what we call the price of robustness. Off the top of my head, I could see, for example the following questions used to assess model robustness: -How robust are the results to a change in the sample (investment universe, time period, etc. Rich in innovation and … Stress testing helps gauge investment risk … The test is whether a significant relationship remains despite including these alternative controls. The Robustness of Tests for Consumer Choice Inconsistencies Jason Abaluck, Jonathan Gruber. From our highly-advanced facility, cars are sent out on the ‘Enthusiastic Driver Robustness Test’ – a gruelling 8,000 kilometre, 390-lap run around 73 challenging curves that rise and fall 300m through Germany’s Eifel forests. To address measurement issue, sample selection and endogeneity concerns, we conduct several robustness tests. You can anticipate a … Finance News channels Client Candidate ... Crédit Agricole Group’s financial robustness confirmed by the 2016 stress test results. Strong enough to tow 32 tonnes. Some governments assert that global value chains create economic vulnerabilities in times of a pandemic. In particular, we flexibly adjust the level of conservatism of the robust solutions in terms of probabilistic bounds of constraint violations. We test ten versions of the Extended Amihud class of proxies by dividing ten different percent-cost proxies by the average US dollar value of daily volume. Explore the Volvo FMX and discover just how robust it really is. Robustness in Statistics contains the proceedings of a Workshop on Robustness in Statistics held on April 11-12, 1978, at the Army Research Office in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The calendar-time approach as applied in the preceding sections assumes constant factor loadings over the estimation period. 21617 Issued in October 2015 NBER Program(s):Economics of Aging, Health Care, Health Economics, Public Economics We explore the in- and out- of sample robustness of tests for consumer choice inconsistencies based on parameter restrictions in parametric models, with a focus … In particular, the huge complexity of electronic systems has led to growth in reliability needs in several application domains as well as pressure for low cost products. Chapter. Robustness testing allows researchers to explore the stability of their main estimates to plausible variations in model specifications. Washington, D.C. 20024 scott.smith@fhfa.gov May 2014 Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) Working Papers are preliminary products circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. There are two principle ways we test our findings' robustness: one splits the sample; the other includes additional control variables that may substitute for inflation in the productivity-inflation relationship. Revisited: Tests of Robustness* Scott Smith, Debra Fuller, Alex Bogin, Nataliya Polkovnichenko, and Jesse Weiher Office of Capital Policy Federal Housing Finance Agency 400 7th Street S.W. Finance … Harold D. Clarke, Ashbel Smith Professor, University of Texas, Dallas Advance praise: 'Neumayer and Plumper have made an impressive contribution to research methodology. Robustness test • This statistical test is done in order to ensure that changes in the data at one maturity do not have a disproportionate effect on the fit for other maturities. A test first has to be reliable. First, we use directional discretionary accruals and restatement as alternative proxies for earnings management. 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